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friendly Islam" which is a "mercy" for all nature.

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a friend, cynically assessed the contribution of pesantren in stemming terrorism is questionable. He even suspects, "secretly" boarding schools have a hand in providing nutritional intake of militancy and caloric extremities to terrorists dressed in Islam. Yes, the bombs barked several times in the past decade, re-issuing suspicion that extreme religious attitudes were fostered in pesantren. Is it true?

As experienced by the pesantren alumni when they went to school, there was no violence curriculum behind the long benches of the students. Everything works as it is, with the same standard works, teaching patterns that are not much different, to the typical santri awareness method. There is nothing to be suspected from a pesantren. Existing pesantren networks remind the author of Bennedict Anderson's thesis on Imagined Community. This type of community exists, according to Anderson, because community members actually don't know each other, but see themselves as part of the same community. It is a set that is more or less homogeneous, both at the level of "space" or "time".

As the heirs of the triumph of classical Islamic scholarship, a comprehensive understanding of the society's holistic understanding of classical scientific treasures actually produces a unique ability to solve complex problems in simple language. The struggle of the kiai, as its leader, with the yellow book (which is often accused of being out of date) turned out to produce a flexibility and effectiveness of actual-contextual law making calculated from legal considerations that lead to aspects of mashlahah and mafsadah.

However, the condition of pesantren sometimes experiences ups and downs in every age. Pesantren, there is a time to be one with the palace as happened during the Demak Kingdom, to be in opposition in the following periods, and to be a bridge between the palace and the people in the future. Conditions, needs and conditions that usually make boarding schools able to adapt in all ages.

However, there was an uncomfortable relationship between the pesantren and the government, when the New Order in the early 1970s began to carry out the developmentalism project. Traditional Islam (pesantren community car) which was previously quite close to the Old Order, this time had to retreat smoothly. Because, to support the success of his developmentalism project, the New Order chose to join hands with Modernist Islam, which was considered to have better managerial abilities than Traditional Islam. Correspondingly, the space for Traditionalist Islam began to be compressed, both politically, socially, culturally and bureaucratically.

Stalled Islamic modernism?

Until finally, the project of Islamic Modernism which wants to displace and displace elements of Islamic Traditionalism, in fact only stops the dimensions of al-uqul tanwir (enlightenment), which seeks to achieve symmetry alias alignment between Islamic teachings with the achievements of modern technology and the construction of "uniformity" in the style of modernist society. He promoted a "city" religious attitude, far from the typical "village" Islamic traditions. This projection seems to fit with Ernest Gellner's classification of "high tradition" Islam and "low tradition" Islam. For this reason, this movement is somewhat allergic to Sufism and rituals which are considered thick with syncretistic nuances.

However, this project of Islamic modernism stalled in the late 1980s, along with the mounting side effects of the failure of developmentalism. From the esoteric side, Islamic Modernism failed to provide a foothold in the meaning of life to urban communities who experienced - borrowing the term Seyyed Hossein Nasr - "spiritual misery". Eventually, urban society began to think of a reconstruction of its religious direction, by again glancing at Islam "low tradition" which was rich in the dimensions of tasawwuf, which had an offer of tanwir al-qulub, enlightenment of the heart. Finally, traditional Islamic traditions and rituals are gradually carried to urban areas. Istighasah, dzikir akbar, and religious parades are celebrated extravagantly in urban public spaces.

Ironically, the stalled project of Islamic modernism coupled with the failed effect of developmentalism also gave birth to other religious variants. Variants of this religious movement are minority, but militant, agile and have global reach. They also affirm themselves with conspicuous identity markings such as beards, robe, trousers, veils, etc. Called global reach, because they carry international issues. Especially in the early 1990s, heartbreaking events that befell Islamic countries reached their peak. The Gulf War I, the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict, the Afghanistan War, the Balkan War, and mass starvation in several Muslim countries in Africa, are "selling issues" that effectively control the quantity of this new variant.


Simultaneously, the New Order began to be lenient towards the Islamic Ummah by providing a loophole for the formation of ICMI which marked the "Islamization of the bureaucracy" (to rival the military which began to attract support for Pak Harto). Finally, this gap is used as an opportunity to fertilize Islamic studies that are centered on several "secular" campuses, although it is still not conspicuous.

Finally, when the Reformation arrived, Islamic movements that had previously been clandestine moved to revive old issues, such as the Indonesian Islamic state, revived the Jakarta Charter, the Formalization of Islamic Sharia, to the International Khilafah. Some small mass organizations were formed with a small number of members but were very active in supporting the above issues.

However, from some of these variants, there is actually a very dangerous splinter movement. They seemed to experience religious egocentrism by denying the others. The truth is only theirs. A black-and-white logic that gives birth to vernunft trubung (resourcefulness), said Emil Dofivat. A dichotomous view which ultimately makes a petty view. These are those who struggle by using violence. The network is very broad, with broken cell patterns, abundant funds, and militancy, extremity and loyalty of members that can not be doubted. This movement became a parasite in the body of Muslims. He is like cancer; undetected but deadly. This extreme movement took casualties again when in action at the Cirebon Police Mosque some time ago. La'natullah alahi.

The key is in the Bersarung community

The real key to stem this dangerous movement lies with the silent majority, the majority of which (as if it were silent) because it uses a lonely self-fulfilling strategy. It is these people who actually have a stake in stemming religious extremism through pesantren institutions as the basis of the movement, with the kiai as mastermind. The non-stop pesantren teaching system has been proven to educate students in their entirety. All educational goals, as revealed by Benjamin S Bloom, namely cognitive (mind or rote), affective (feeling or emotion), and psychomotor (action) have been worked on in the pesantren teaching system which has taken root for hundreds of years.

It is these gloved that, in Sidney Jones's view, become a reinforcing root so that Islamic moderateism does not collapse. They chose to become a silent majority, among others because of their limitations in media mastery. It is also related to the moral commitment and teachings that they believe that the attitude of tawaddlu is something noble, and on the contrary the attitude of self-assertion is an attitude that is not in line with what was exemplified by the previous scholars. Social actions to help people who are not able to, educate people who do not know, foster a spirit of independence in the community is a da'wah bil thing all of which is dedicated as worship. It is not very beautiful if the social worship is exhibited to others so that it will reduce its value.

Why has this hope been placed on gloved communities? Because, in contrast to other religious groups (firqah), the pesantren (and NU) worldview combines three perspectives, namely the theological or spiritual dimensions, the moral or mystical dimensions, and the legal or fiqh dimensions. Everything is positioned to support and complement each other, not separate or face each other.

The theological dimension serves to strengthen monotheism and bring awareness of human functions as khalifatullah. The moral dimension or Sufism is developed to build a culture based on the values ​​of politeness, wisdom, and closeness to the Creator. Finally, the legal dimension or fiqh is developed to support the process of how the law is applied. The three dimensions above are a unity, cannot be emphasized only one aspect. Some of the above are the things that have caused Western academics to fall in love with the world of pesantren.

All three can also be used as a reference to understand the complexity of pesantren. All three function as "binoculars" which are used to assess and consider the aspects of masfsadah and mashlahah of all things. For this reason, the pesantren until now has not been easily caught up with the attitudes of tatharruf and taasshub. This is what I think is the key to campaigning for "friendly Islam" which is a "mercy" for all nature.

It is impossible to realize Islam which is a blessing for the universe without involving pesantren elements. He is the heir to the glory of Islam in classical times. Finally, only history will be the only judge (only history will be able to judge) for the efforts of the pesantren community in building a social order for mutual benefit. Allah knows best bisshawab.
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